INT 21h

Hi, I am Vladimir Smagin, SysAdmin and Kaptain. Telegram Email / GIT / Thingiverse / RSS / GPG

Another raid6 recovery story

№ 11223 В разделе "Sysadmin" от February 14th, 2021,

Ahh… Again… You thinking affected server is a backup of backup server but somehow this old as dinosaur shit server contains part of production without any copy in git or somewhere else.

60000 power-on hours of each hard drive. Yeeeaah.

Load rescue OS and check mdstat. Two disks already dead and failing third, FS already corrupted. Everything as we love.

>$ cat /proc/mdstat 
md2 : active raid6 sda3[6] sdb3[5] sdd3[4] sdf3[3] sdg3[0]
      1073085440 blocks super 1.2 level 6, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [7/5] [U__UUUU]
      bitmap: 2/2 pages [8KB], 65536KB chunk

You can try replace dead disks, reassemble raid in-place and fix FS, but who knows, result may be much worse than current state. So I decided to create partitions images and work with them.

Copy images over network to new server, if dd won’t work use ddrescue.

dd if=/dev/sda3 bs=1M | gzip | ssh root@new_server 'gzip -d | dd of=/sda3 bs=1M'
dd if=/dev/sdb3 bs=1M | gzip | ssh root@new_server 'gzip -d | dd of=/sdb3 bs=1M'
dd if=/dev/sdd3 bs=1M | gzip | ssh root@new_server 'gzip -d | dd of=/sdd3 bs=1M'
dd if=/dev/sdf3 bs=1M | gzip | ssh root@new_server 'gzip -d | dd of=/sdf3 bs=1M'
dd if=/dev/sdg3 bs=1M | gzip | ssh root@new_server 'gzip -d | dd of=/sdg3 bs=1M'

Now you have all images to reassemble partition, so use losetup to imaginate that image file is a block device, because mdadm not working with images directly.

losetup -P /dev/loop0 /sda3
losetup -P /dev/loop1 /sdb3
losetup -P /dev/loop2 /sdd3
losetup -P /dev/loop3 /sdf3
losetup -P /dev/loop4 /sdg3

Now run cat /proc/mdstat

md127 : active raid6 loop4[6] loop3[5] loop2[4] loop1[3] loop0[0]
      1073085440 blocks super 1.2 level 6, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [7/5] [U__UUUU]
      bitmap: 2/2 pages [8KB], 65536KB chunk

unused devices: 

If raid not assembled automaticaly run mdadm -A md127 /dev/loop0 /dev/loop1 /dev/loop2 /dev/loop3 /dev/loop4.

Yes, you assembled raid partition from images! Lets try to fix filesystem.

fsck -y /dev/md127

But this is not the right time to give up

Try to use another supeblock fsck -b 32768 -y /dev/md127

AAaaaand fsck can’t write changes to first superblock, lol. BUT! You can use alive superblock to mount FS!

mount -o sb=131072 /dev/md127 /mnt

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Add Microsoft marketplace back to VSCodium

№ 11218 В разделе "Sysadmin" от February 10th, 2021,

Someone replaced microsoft’s marketplace to codium, so many extensions just absent now. This link will help you return back all your favorite extensions.

Replace in /usr/share/codium/resources/app/product.json:

"extensionsGallery": {
    "serviceUrl": "",
    "itemUrl": ""

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Virtualbox: mount physical disk

№ 11191 В разделе "Sysadmin" от January 4th, 2021,
В подшивках: ,

Add your user to disk group and relogin\reboot.

Next create volume file:

VBoxManage internalcommands createrawvmdk -filename 16Gflash.vmdk -rawdisk /dev/sdf

Add disk and mount to virtual machine

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Credentials and other secrets from Vault to your containers at startup

№ 11183 В разделах: Programming Sysadmin от January 2nd, 2021,
В подшивках: , , , ,

What if you stored your database credentials in Vault and want to make ENV variables with them for your application at container startup? You can do it for Kubernetes deployments or plain Docker containers with my small program vault-envs.

Add to your Dockerfile additional steps:

  • install my vault-envs programs that “converts” secret to ENV variables
  • create\modify entrypoint script where or call vault-envs and other pre-startup actions

Add to your Dockerfile steps:

# add Ubuntu\Debian repo and install vault-envs with fresh certificates
RUN curl | apt-key add - && \
    echo "deb bionic main" | tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/21h.list && \
    apt update
RUN apt install -y ca-certificates vault-envs

# copy entrypoint script
RUN chmod +x /


Your entrypoint script will look like:



export eval `vault-envs -token "$VAULT_TOKEN" \
        -vault-url \
        -vault-path /prod/crm/connection_postgres -envs-prefix "PG_"`

export eval `vault-envs -token "$VAULT_TOKEN" \
        -vault-url \
        -vault-path /prod/crm/connection_mysql -envs-prefix "MYSQL_"`

export eval `vault-envs -token "$VAULT_TOKEN" \
        -vault-url \
        -vault-path /prod/crm/connection_api`


exec "$@"

If some vars names is identical they will be overwritten at next vault-envs call, so I used prefix.

Now build image and run

docker run --rm -e VAULT_TOKEN=s.QQmLlqnHnRAEO9eUeoggeK1n crm printenv

and see results at container console:


Wooh! You did it.

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№ 11163 В разделах: Electronics Sysadmin от December 31st, 2020,
В подшивках: , ,

Замутил себе GNUK в качестве хранилища ключей для дешифровки писем, бэкапов и прочего хлама, а также ssh авторизации на серверах. Стоит оно всего 140 руб, что гораздо дешевле аналогов за 50 баксов 🙂 На отлично работает под линуксами с GnuPG.

Заказал тут Для прошивки нужен второй такой или любой другой прошивальщик STM32.

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